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Termite Pheromones – Termite Trails & Ink Experiments & Control Methods

Termites are the most social insects in the world. They have a special organization inside their colonies and behave according to a specific order.

This organization between termites is regulated by many means of communication. You could wonder how termites – blind insects – can communicate; but it is true, yes they communicate using some chemicals called pheromones.

  • What are pheromones?
  • What is the origin of pheromones?
  • How termites are socially organized?
  • What is the behavior of termites?
  • What is the importance of pheromones in the life of termites?
  • Are there other ways of communication between termites?
  • How can pheromones be used in termite extermination?

Definition of Pheromones

Pheromones are, generally, chemical substances used by insects (or even plants) for many reasons, like trail marking, defense, reproduction, organization of the caste, among other things.

Termite pheromones are secreted from exocrine glands which exist in the abdomen of termites. As for termites, pheromones are usually similar to a blue ink. So when you discover a blue trail with a significant smell, you have to follow it and see if your house structure really suffers from a termite infestation.

The Origins of Pheromones

Pheromones were first discovered by Peter Karlson and Martin Lüscher in 1959. These chemical substances are considered chemical messengers which were called “alarm substances” by Adolf Butenandt, Jean-Henri Fabre, Karl von Frisch and Jean-Henri Fabre.

Pheromones are similar to hormones and their chemical composition is based on a carbon chain to which are attached several atoms of hydrogen so it is most like proteins.

These substances are catalyzed by enzymes which are the exocrine glands at the bottom of a termite and detected by receptors which are antennae at the head of termites.

The social organization of termite colonies

Termites are social insects which live in colonies and for that, they must have their own “law” to manage their social life and guarantee the survival of the colony. This law is called – by entomologists – the social organization, and it is really typical.

The study of termites allowed us to discover a very special social organization of termites as they organize their troops in such an amazing way:

  • Workers: worker termites present the power of the colony. They have several activities to assure the persistence of other termites such as feeding termite soldiers, feeding the king and the queen, taking care of the eggs, building walls (defensive activity) on the boundaries of the colony and finding food sources.

The physical structure of a worker termite is simple: they look pale-off white, with yellow round head and dark antennae. Also, they don’t have mandibles.

  • Soldiers: soldier termites are the defensive power of the colony; they spend their life protecting the colony from termite predators and inappropriate atmospheres.

This caste of termites, usually, occupy the boundaries of the colony waiting for predators so when an ant discovers a termite colony, they are the first who attack the ant and try to make it leave.

Soldier termites cannot eat by themselves so there must be worker termites to feed them.

The physical structure of soldier termites is more complicated than worker termites: they have an oval black head with sickle shaped mandibles which help them do their defensive role.

  • Reproductive Termites: this caste of termites is composed of the fertile males and females which swarm from the native colony to a new place in order to form a new colony.

The role of reproductive termites is necessary in the life cycle of a colony; it guarantees the survival of termites and persistence of the colonies.

Most of reproductive termites are winged, so they swarm to a far places and form new colonies there, such as subterranean termites. A few reproductive termites are wingless, so they cannot swarm away. Therefore, the fertile male and female leave the colony to a near location to form a secondary colony without swarming away.

The reproductive termites become kings and queens and they are specified with longer abdomen than other termites, bigger size, and longer antennae. They also have eyes unlike all the other castes of the colony that don’t have the ability to develop eyes.

Termite Behavior

Termites, unlike other insects, have a strict behavior. In spite of their amazingly structured social organization, they follow strict rules in their life cycles and they work on it so they can build a termite empire.

Most of the termites get fed by wood and cellulose, so they generally infest wooden structures or dead trees.

Worker termites leave the native colony in search of food sources and they use pheromones to mark a trail so they can mark the way to an important food source.

After finding the source, worker termites recruit other worker termites to feed the colony, so their mission is to bring food and feed soldier termites, the king and the queen.

Termites can also inhibit other termites from going to some sources when they feel a danger coming.

The queen can also use pheromones to inhibit some termites from being fertile so it guarantees the best organization of the colony.

Therefore, as it seems to be correct, the pheromones are the best way of communication between termites and they are the best chemical messengers which guarantee the survival of the colony.

The importance of pheromones in the life of termites

Although termites are blind – except kings and queens – they need a way of communication to assure their social organization and succeed in managing the colony. That’s why pheromones are a necessary hormone secreted by the exocrine glands of termites. It is not just important for the communication of termites, but it also presents other advantages in the life cycle of a colony:

  • Marking food trails: when a worker termite discovers a food source, it starts marking a trail to this source using pheromones which will lead other termites to the exact location by smelling it and feeling it with their sensors.
  • Regulating the number of the caste: some pheromones can be secreted by the queen to inhibit worker termites from becoming reproductive termites. By that, they organize the colony and keep the order inside it.
  • Replacing the queen: when the queen is dead, the king has the ability to secrete a pheromone which can call for fertile females to become queens and that’s how the colony remains managed by a kind and especially a queen.
  • Avoiding danger: when a danger is felt among the termites, they start secreting a special pheromone to warn other termites about the danger coming so they have make the option to leave or to stay. It is a working defensive system that helps the colonies survive for years in a domestic structure.

Other Methods of Termite Communication

It is true that termites are smart insects that use pheromones to communicate and they overcame their blindness by this mutation. But they are smarter than you think; they have other means of communication which will make you just SURPRISED!

  • Vibrations: this method is commonly used in case of danger. The soldier termite hits the ground with its head – particularly his mandibles – causing a remarkable vibration inside the colony, so other termites become warned and react immediately.
  • Sounds: when feeling a danger, a huge colony of termites produce a sound that can be heard from several meters near to the location, causing the warning of other near colonies.
  • Instinctive mechanical communication: when building a nest for the colony, there is no chemical communication needed, but the termite has an instinctive ability to bring soil pellets to the construction site and other termites will be mechanically encouraged to do the same job so a nest will be formed in a few days.

How Pheromones Can be Used in Termite Extermination

This amazing mean of communication – the chemical communication via pheromones – can be used by experts in order to exterminate termites. These traces left by the insects can be a clue to their location and may help experts discover the nature, size and location of the termite colony.

Most of the experts rely on finding pheromones trails to start their termite treatment plan.

First, they inspect the pheromones trails and follow them to get to the nest.

Second, they discover the colony and measure the damage so they can move to the termite extermination. In this case, they use special ink pens which contain some ink with an odor similar to the odor of termite pheromones and mark another pheromone trails to a bait station, this should be done very carefully and by a professional to guarantee the best results.

Third, when the termites follow the artificial pheromone marked by the expert, they will get to a new food source, which is a bait station. After that, the poisonous ingredient which will kill the termites will be planted in the bait station and termites would be exterminated in a few days.

Further Resources for Termite Pheromones

  1. Behavioral bioassays of termite trail pheromones : Recruitment and orientation effects of cembrene-A inNasutitermes costalis (Isoptera: Termitidae) and discussion of factors affecting termite response in experimental contexts. – J Chem Ecol
  2. Nonadecadienone, a new termite trail-following pheromone identified in Glossotermes oculatus (Serritermitidae) – Chem Senses
  3. How Do Worker Termites See? –
  4. Termite Trails – University of Kentucky Department of Entomology
  5. Researchers Find ‘Key Ingredient’ That Regulates Termite Caste System – North Carolina State News

How do Termites Spread? Do Termites Infest & Eat Wood in Homes Fast?

What is a termite infestation?

Termites live in colonies, meaning that they are social insects. When your house has a termite infestation it means that the termites have formed a colony in one of the foundation/any structures of your house. Termites Subterranean in nature require moisture to survive and therefore need either a humid environment or a source of humidity/moisture.

  • Formosan termites, a sub type of subterranean termites have an aggressive nature and have nests above ground.

Dry wood termites do not do not require moisture or any particular condition to survive. They attack wood and are capable of forming colonies that do not need to be anywhere near ground. These are usually very widespread termites and you are probably experiencing an infestation related to them.

How do termites spread?

Termites, need food as do all other living creatures. They require a cellulose based material that is usually found in the likes of wood, furniture, drywall coverings, books, and boxes. Termites forage almost at a constant bases and can spread up to 150 feet around their one colony. It doesn’t take long for termites to ‘nest’ and an infestation can take place within a time span of a mere few days.

There are two ways in which an infestation can occur:

  • Colonies will send out winged reproductive termites to start out new colonies. The termites will begin forming a colony as soon as a suitable environment presents itself.
  • Subterranean termites will be on a lookout for food and will find a way into one of the structures in a household. They can build mud tunnels in an attempt to access the wood in a property. These tunnels are made over foundation walls of a structure and although there are many more methods of spread of infestation, this one has proved to be the most common one.

What are the signs of infestation?

Signs of infestation will again be determined by the kind of termite infesting your house. Treatment also does matter on what termite is infesting the house/property. However briefly putting it; dry wood termites will result in termite ‘droppings’ these may fall from the ceiling in form of wood colored, ridged pellets.

Subterranean termites are winged termites and also commonly form mud tunnels. So if you notice any probability is there is an infestation either in your house or in the surrounding premises. Similarly forton termites also leave behind a mud structured trace in wall structures, indicating their presence.

Why are termites a threat to my home?

Termite infestation can be devastating at times. When the termite infestation goes undiscovered, serious damage can occur to a building. The termites can eat up to 6 pounds of wood in a year and that is concerning only a single colony. If more than a colony infest your home chances are the main structure of your house may be in danger. They can eat through wood and therefore will damage your furniture and may even pose a worthy threat.

Around $5 million documented damage has occurred on a yearly basis alone and that’s only the damage that has been studied and recorded. It is quite likely that there are far more expenses related to termite infestation. Insurance also does not cover termite infestation and such related problems and this results in unreported infestations. If there is humidity in the surrounding environment and there is anything cellulose based in vast numbers in an area chances are that an infestation will occur.

The infestation will not die down on its own and will spread ridiculously fast. Any buildings or homes with a significant wooden infrastructure could be weakened by the presence of termites making it all the more easier for them to collapse. Imagine multiple termite colonies each eating away an average of 6 pounds of wood on a yearly basis, from multiple parts of an infrastructure.

So you have termites? Now what? What can you do to get rid of and exterminate any termite colonies inside or outside your house?

Inside your house? You can get liquid termiticides (basically pesticide but for termites specifically), this will either kill them or force the colony to evacuate.

If the colony is situated outside your house you can’t do much to get rid of them and honestly? You don’t have to. If you get your house treated with liquid termiticides the chemicals form a chemical barrier around your house. In case there is a hole in the chemical barrier you can always have bait stations involved to avoid damage to furniture and the house at least till the termites can be gotten rid of.

How treatment should be done?

The treatment should preferably be done by a professional pest management official. Do it yourself methods will again not eradicate the termites completely. They will probably not form sufficient chemical barriers. They can also cause poisoning if ingested.

Professionals will be able to recognize the types of termite, the most suitable and efficient method/termiticide to use to remove them and will use just the right amount to get rid of the infestation without using enough to form a considerable health risk to any children and pets or the environment.

Further Resources about How Termites Spread

  1. Formosan Subterranean Termites – Alabama A&M and Auburn Universities
  2. Termites in Wisconsin: Insect Diagnostic Lab Note – University of Wisconsin
  3. Tree Termites – Inspect & Treat Tree Trunks & Stumps for Termite Damage –
  4. Subterranean Termites – University of Missouri Extension Department of Entomology 

Termites in Wood Furniture – Signs, Prevention & Removal Tips & Guide

Termites are destroying insects which make a disaster when they infest a house especially when they find a way to the wood furniture. Most of termites get fed by wood, for that, they infest wood furniture and start forming colonies inside it.

Types of wood destroying termites:

As you know the common types of termites in North America are:

Formosan termite, eastern subterranean termite, Drywood termite and Dampwood termite.

  • The Formosan termite is, always, found in soil so it doesn’t like much wood and it finds better conditions in the soil where there are high moisture and cool air.
  • The Eastern subterranean termite is wood destroying and it has a dangerous destructive behavior but it, rarely, infests furniture. This particular kind of termites likes infesting the structural wood because it likes forming huge colonies and it consumes a lot of wood.
  • As for Drywood or Dampwood termites, they LOVE wood furniture and they find the most appropriate condition in the wood of home furniture.
  • Drywood termite: this particular type of termites likes infesting dry wood. It means it exists where the temperature level is really high and without special need for moisture unlike other kind of termites.

While most of wood furniture is dry and it exists in ambient temperature then it becomes a perfect home for Drywood termites to build their nest.

  • Dampwood termite: Dampwood termites are less likely to be harmful for wood furniture than Drywood termites. These termites, want a wet location where there are high levels of moisture and humid air, dry wood furniture is not appropriate for them.

But Dampwood termites have a special attraction to wood, especially the new kind of wood in furniture when the furniture is cold and they say “it’s better for the wood’s persistence”. Yes it’s great for wood persistence unless it doesn’t get attacked and destroyed by Dampwood termites.

Signs of termite activity in wood furniture:

The termites’ existence in wood furniture is a dangerous phenomenon that can bring many disappointing results to the homeowner, that’s why such destructive behavior has to be detected. Here are some signs that may help you detect termites in wood furniture.

  • Wet spot: When forming a colony, the nest of termites looks like a wet big spot from outside the wood which is most like water leak, especially at the Dampwood termite colonies because they prefer high degrees of moisture.
  • Dirt or mud tubes: To move safely from the native colony to a food source or secondary colonies, termites build a mud tube with moist soil pellets. This mud tube is provides a safe trip to the termites and it is necessary for any colony. So, if you find a mud tube on your wood furniture, try to cut it to check if there are termites, or follow it to find the location of the colony.

Dirt or mud tubes are major facts of termites’ existence.

  • Cracked wood: Any cracks in the wood could be due to the old age of furniture or possible hot temperature problems. But it is also important to check if some cracks in your wood furniture may be a signs of termite infestation.
  • Small holes: Small holes in the wood are the ends of galleries inside the wood which provide the termites with sufficient air. Some termites could appear through the small holes in the wood. Therefore, you should inspect some holes, if found, to check if your furniture is suffering from a termite infestation.
  • Fecal pellets: Termites’ feces are very recognizable, so if you discover some fecal pellets near to your wood furniture, you should contact your expert to make sure if it is a sign of termites’ existence or not.

The termite infestation in wood furniture makes a horrible damage that may lead to total disposal of the furniture. I mean, a colony of million individual of Drywood termites can consume 10 ounces (around 280g) of wood a day. In that case, if you have a dry wood desk which weights 100kg, it will be all eaten in just 1 year. Therefore you should start thinking of working ways to get rid of wood destroying termites.

How to remove termites from wood furniture:

The control of termites in the soil could be done by several ways that we cited before, such as baiting. But when the termites infest wood, especially wood furniture inside the house, the situation gets critical and needs a professional intervention to control the termites and, totally remove them. You may start thinking of many ways, but here are a few to help you:

  • Moisture decrease: Decreasing the moisture may provide inappropriate life conditions to the termites infesting the wood, so either they will die or leave the furniture. To do that, place the infested wood furniture in the sun, so the moisture wood will evaporate and termites will be exterminated. You can also ventilate the nest by applying high ventilating power to the tunnel holes in the wood furniture.
  • Orange oil: Orange oil is extracted of orange peels. It is the perfect homemade remedy which is able to kill termites by simply injecting the oil through the holes in the wood furniture and in few hours, termites will be al dead.
  • Electronic termite control: You can use electric current (90,000+ voltage push) to exterminate termites. This current with high voltage and high frequency will get through wood and kill the termites immediately. It is a useful way but you need to be safe and don’t dispose yourself to any electric danger.
  • Liquid nitrogen: Everybody knows that nitrogen get liquid at -328°F (around -200°C) and this very cold liquid will kill the termites as they can’t resist to a temperature under -20°F. Simply, buy liquid nitrogen and inject it through holes and cracks in the wood furniture.

Further Resources for Getting Rid of Termites in Furniture

  1. Drywood Termites – Clemson University
  2. Featured Creatures: Drywood Termites – University of Florida Entomology & Nematology Department
  3. Termites In Firewood –
  4. Termites – Washington State Department of Ecology

Tree Termites – Inspect & Treat Tree Trunks & Stumps for Termite Damage

Termites are insects that live in dark areas and get fed by cellulose most found in wood. These insects are considered as a pest in the United States and more than 41 species are found there. U.S people, particularly those in New Orleans, suffer from many termite infestations which cost the government $5 billion yearly.

Termites started infesting houses since people have moved from traditional cement and rock buildings to new fashioned wood structured houses. Termites infest any kind of wooden material, and they also invade trees which have no resistance to these insects. That’s why, when a tree is infested, it gets totally damaged and useless in a short amount of time.

These termites that live in trees are called “tree termites” and they are as dangerous as “house termites”. They can ruin your entire garden in several years.

Types of termites that live in trees (tree termites):

Termite most common species in North America are: Formosan termite, eastern subterranean termite, Drywood termite and Dampwood termite. Well, all of these species can infest trees but they just don’t have the same destructive behavior when invading tree trunk.

  • Formosan termite: This particular kind of termites is subterranean, it means they leave in the soil, but it has the most dangerous invasive behavior. Formosan termites can infest a tree from its bottom: they move through the roots to the main trunk and form a tunnel from the mail soil colony to the secondary trunk colony considering the tree as a marvelous source of food.
  • Eastern subterranean termite: The eastern subterranean termite, rarely, infest trees as it lives in the underground where there are high level of moisture, wet soil and cool air. Eastern subterranean termites can, also form small colonies on the ground, and they are frequently found near to a tree trunk recognized with mud mounds.
  • Drywood termite: This kind of termites is invasive and it infects any type of wooden areas, ranging from walls, to basements, firewood, and even trees. Drywood termites like forming colonies in a living tree because it is considered as a good source of food. They don’t like much moisture but a dry trunk of tree is perfect for them. Besides, their nests are visible because they don’t form a nest inside the tree trunk, but they build it along it.
  • Dampwood termites: as for Dampwood termites, trees are the perfect location of a colony. This type of termites like high levels of moisture and the tree provides it for them with the wet wood inside it.

They also infest decayed wood such as a dead tree trunk as it contains a lot of dead cellulose ready to be recycled by termites. In North America, Dampwood termites are most likely to invade trees or plants more than houses.

The potential damage caused by tree termites and some ways to repair damaged trees:

Termites cannot infest an area without damaging it, they are considered as the most dangerous pest in U.S.A and the entire world. Damage caused by termite infestation maybe so dangerous for a house structure as well as a garden, that’s why you should know about the potential damage that can be caused by tree termites maybe you will start inspecting your garden regularly:

  1. Damage that can be caused by tree termites:

  • Tree disease: Due to a termite infestation, the tree can suffer from a disease or some weakness and it will start by stopping the production (the tree gives no more fruits) because it doesn’t get enough energy to use, the termites take it all. They are like tree parasites.
  • The bad looking of your garden: When termites infest a tree, they will make colonies all over the tree main and secondary trunks, so the tree will look like a huge termite nest and loses its green brightness. Besides, the borders of the tree may be all filled with mud mounds and disgusting fecal pellets.
  • The tree may fall: The termites gain entry to the tree through its hollow center, so they will occupy the center of the main trunk causing by that a total destruction of the whole tree. When the termites start using the wood inside the tree, it will lose its balance and may fall.
  1. Ways to repair damaged trees:

  • Using termiticides: Termiticides are a necessary pesticide to repair trees, I mean you don’t want to cut your tree and remove it from your beautiful backyard, but you want to treat the termites inside it. Well, you must use termiticides by injecting one of them into the holes in the tree trunk, and it will spread through termite tunnels until it kills the whole colony. By that, the tree would be well-treated and termites are gone but you still need a pest control professional to tell you so.
  • Pruning infected wood: If the termite infestation is still early, it is better if you prune away the infected wood areas in the tree and try to remove all the locations infected with a termite without removing essential roots or trunks.

Prevention and extermination of tree termites:

Tree termites should be avoided from the beginning following many ways like:

  • Placing traps around trees and all over your garden to detect any termite or other invasive insect activity.
  • Inspecting trees regularly, especially old trees that may have a large solid trunk and do your inspection very carefully to find a mud tunnel or some holes in the wood or some mud mounds around a tree.

As for extermination, termites should be immediately exterminated if you found any colonies in some of your trees:

  • The use of insecticides – or termiticides
  • Termite bait stations
  • Electronic termite control systems
  • Hot and cold treatments via ventilating the holes or injecting liquid nitrogen
  • Burning the excessive mulch around the area, a little piece of mulch can carry a whole colony.

Further Resources for Tree Termites

  1. Fungal Foam Seeks and Destroys Termites – USDA AgResearch Magazine
  2. Do Termites Eat Cedar Trees? –
  3. Termites and Orchard Management – Peace Corps Document
  4. Termite Tree Inspection Tips – LSU AgCenter
  5. Tree Health Issues: Termites – Texas A&M Forest Service

How long does termite treatment last? How often is termite treatment required?

Termite infestation can lead to severe damage of the internal structures of your home. To ensure that your home is safe from attack by termite i.e. white ants is to have a chemical treatment done to your house, a chemical treatment that is ‘current’ will be more than sufficient enough to keep the termites at bay.

Many home owners are unfamiliar with when they got their last treatment or what exact chemical treatment they got previously, there is widespread confusion as to how long termite treatments last and quite often the owners of the treated properties are unaware of just what treatment they are paying for.

How do I know my home is infested with termites?

If you find winged ant like insects emerging from corners of any foundation in your home or flying around in your property, chances are your house is infested. Often time’s people dismiss the termites as ants which are often in vast numbers during the same season

What is the main condition that determines the time and length of time in between termite treatments?

There are multiple factors to be considered, not only one. The pest management official you hire should be a professional and should have a good amount of experience which would deem him highly educated in the area and also will play a part in how thorough this professional is with the treatment they apply and how well they apply it.

The density of the colony of termites also determines the effectiveness of the treatment as the bigger the colony, the harder it will be to guarantee one hundred percent eradication of the pests. A professional pest management official will be more than capable of evaluating and giving you a sufficient treatment plan as well as an overview of how sever the treatment plan will need to be. There are different types of treatments as well when it comes to terminating termites. The two most common are:

  • Liquid treatments.
  • Baiting stations.

Liquid termite treatments; how long will they usually last? And how sufficient are they?

Liquid treatment usually can last up to a few years. 5 years is an average time period for many treatments. If you find termites in your house regardless of getting a treatment done recently, it is probably because they found a hole in the chemical barrier. This is usually why thorough annual inspections are encouraged. Also the laying of pesticides in soil will prevent any surprise visits from the white ants.

What are termite baiting stations and how high is their longevity?

Bait stations will require maintenance all year round. These are another form of termite treatment. The stations are strategically placed around your property. Rather than the termite colonies infesting your property, they ‘take the bait’ and during foraging find these stations and bring them back to their colonies instead of damaging your home. This reduces any risk you may have of termite infestation.

Obviously the stations will need to be continuously put under evaluation for replacement and depending on your environment and its conditions replacements may be need to be put in more often than on average.

Q. Do termites pose any risk of harm to family and pets?

Registered pesticides pose no significant hazard, whether it is to humans, pets or the environment when applied of course according to label directions. Extensive tests take place to observe any adverse effects on the health of people who may potentially encounter them. If any health problem may arise, despite the negligible health risk, instant contact should be made with ones physician.

Odorless treatments have come into market to consider the needs of more sensitive clients, however if the chemicals are still a problem, are irritating and people with termite infestation are still apprehensive of the pesticides than a suitable recommendation would be bait stations which have proven to be a good replacement.

Q: Having termite infestation regardless of a recent termite treatment? Have you been scammed?

More times than not, you haven’t been cheated. It’s not necessary that your treatment exterminate any living termite in a 5 mile radius. Termite control is treatment of living creatures. Pests they may be but they aren’t something one can simply ‘fix’. The service differs from electrical work and plumbing etc. even experienced professionals with some of the best treatments at hand can fail to keep the pests out no matter how knowledgeable they may be.

Termites are very small regarding size therefore they can get through some of the tiniest gaps in nooks and crannies that you may not even know existed! Small areas in the soil that are left untreated can play as breeding grounds. Unlike other services such as plumbing or electrical work, termite control involves living creatures and one cannot program them to stay away.

Every firm has an intention to keep away the termites for good by creating an endless; barrier without any holes, made of chemicals however in actual practice this impenetrable barrier is close to impossible. If one considers baits, then even they aren’t the perfect prevention. It can take months for the termites to even find the strategically placed stations and their control is more or less a very hard achievement

There are many companies who actually consider these environmental conditions and actually consider flaws in application. Pesticides cannot expire within 5 years however if another termite infestation takes place, the company in charge of the pest management professionals often gives re-applications of the termite controlling chemical completely free of cost.

Further Resources for Termite Treatment Length

  1. Subterranean Termites: A Homeowner’s Handbook – University of Nebraska Lincoln
  2. Tenting a House for Termites: Preparing a House for  Heat or Chemical Fumigation –
  3. Structural Pest Control Questions and Answers – State of California Department of Pesticide Regulation